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New invention revolutionizes heat transport

Artistic impression of quantum-limited heat conduction of photons over macroscopic distances. Credit: Heikka Valja.

Scientists extended the range of maximally efficient heat transport by ten thousand fold. This may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers.

We have taken something that is already as good as it can be and made it, in a way, ten thousand times better. This completely changes how we can utilize heat transport at the quantum limit.”
— Mikko Möttönen

HELSINKI, FINLAND, FINLAND, February 1, 2016 /EINPresswire.com/ -- Heat conduction is a fundamental physical phenomenon utilized, for example, in clothing, housing, car industry, and electronics. Thus our day-to-day life is inevitably affected by major shocks in this field. The Quantum Computing and Devices (QCD) research group, led by Professor Mikko Möttönen has now made one of these groundbreaking discoveries. This new invention revolutionizes quantum-limited heat conduction which means as efficient heat transport as possible from point A to point B. This is great news especially for the developers of quantum computers.

Quantum technology is still a developing research field, but its most promising application is the super-efficient quantum computer. In the future, it can solve problems that a normal computer can never crack. The efficient operation of a quantum computer requires that it can be cooled down efficiently. At the same time, a quantum computer is prone to errors due to external noise.

Möttönen’s innovation may be utilized in cooling quantum processors very efficiently and so cleverly that the operation of the computer is not disturbed.
”Our research started already in 2011 and advanced little by little. It feels really great to achieve a fundamental scientific discovery that has real practical applications”, Professor Mikko Möttönen rejoices.

Important ideas

In the QCD Labs in Finland, Möttönen’s research group succeeded in measuring quantum-limited heat transport over distances up to a meter. A meter does not sound very long at first, but previously scientists have been able to measure such heat transport only up to distances comparable to the thickness of a human hair.

“For computer processors, a meter is an extremely long distance. Nobody wants to build a larger processor than that”, stresses Möttönen.

The discovery is so important, that it has just been published in Nature Physics which is the most prestigious scientific journal in physics.

The key idea in their research was to use photons to transfer the heat. Photons are particles that, for example, form the visible light. Previously scientists have used, for example, electrons as the heat carriers.

”We know that photons can transport heat over long distances. In fact, they bring the heat of the Sun to the Earth”, Möttönen says.

The team came up with the idea to use a transmission line with no electrical resistance to transport the photons. This superconducting line was built on a silicon chip with the size of a square centimeter. Tiny resistors were placed at the ends of the transmission line. The research results were obtained by measuring induced changes in the temperatures of these resistors.

New physics

The QCD group was able to show that quantum-limited heat conduction is possible over long distances. The result enables the application of this phenomenon outside laboratories. Thus the device built by the team fundamentally changes how heat conduction can be utilized in practice.

Möttönen’s previous research results have also been praised in the scientific community as well as the media. He has published articles in top journals, such as Nature and Science. However, there is a reason why this new discovery feels even better than previous breakthroughs:

”The research has been fully carried out in my lab by my staff. This really makes me feel like I hit the jackpot”, Möttönen rejoices.

Full-resolution images can be obtained at:
(login: rl12116, password: x5cz3Rf)
Images and videos may be used free of charge in stories on this work.

Research article: (This article should be credited as the source of stories covered.)

Matti Partanen, Kuan Yen Tan, Joonas Govenius, Russell E. Lake, Miika K. Mäkelä, Tuomo Tanttu, and Mikko Möttönen,
"Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances",
Nature Physics, DOI: 10.1038/nphys3642

Link to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphys3642
(Above link will open as soon as the paper is published.)

(Free link to the submitted version of the article: http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.03981)

Mikko Möttönen
Aalto University
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